Tag Archives: infrastructure

One foot of sea level rise puts thousands of miles of fiber underwater

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Climate change poses a significant threat to telecommunications infrastructure. That’s the conclusion of a recently published paper by three researchers from the University of Oregon and the University of Wisconsin.

The authors took standard electronic map data – i.e. geographical information system/GIS files – showimg major fiber routes and overlayed it with coastal flooding predictions made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The data shows thousands of miles of long haul fiber at risk…

The results of our analysis show that climate change-related sea level incursions could have a devastating impact on Internet communication infrastructure even in the relatively short term. In particular, we find that 1,186 miles of long-haul fiber conduit and 2,429 miles of metro fiber conduit will be underwater in the next 15 years. Similarly, we find that 1,101 termination points will be surrounded by sea water in the next 15 years. Given the fact that most fiber conduit is underground, we expect the effects of sea level rise could be felt well before the 15 year horizon. Interestingly, we find that the risks over longer time scales do not increase significantly. Specifically, there is only a modest increase in the amount of additional Internet infrastructure that will be under water at the 6 ft. rise level (the 100 year projection) vs. the 1 ft. rise level (the 15 year prediction)…

Our results show that communication infrastructure in New York, Miami, and Seattle, respectively, are at highest risk. We also quantify the impact to individual service providers and find that CenturyLink, Intelliquent (formerly Tinet), and AT&T are at highest risk.

California also faces significant risk, according the authors. They list San Francisco, Palo Alto and Los Angeles in the top five of several risk categories, primarily because of the high concentration of telecoms assets.

It appears that the authors assumed that the fiber routes in their database are all underground. Some of that infrastructure is likely strung on utility pole routes, but the principle is pretty much the same: coastal flooding can disrupt fiber infrastructure, and it doesn’t matter much if it’s entire routes or just chunks.

The danger might not be as imminent as the authors assume – a one foot sea level rise in the next 15 years is a pretty aggressive forecast. Even so, it’s a factor that needs to be considered in planning new fiber construction, for redundancy as much as for additional capacity, and in maintenance budgets for existing routes.

MBEP conference follows local path to ubiquitious regional broadband

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Bringing ubiquitous high speed broadband to the Monterey Bay region requires goals set and pursued at the grass roots level, but benchmarked against a regional plan and standards. That was the top line consensus from a roundtable brainstorming session at the Monterey Bay Economic Partnership’s third annual State of the Region conference, held last week in Monterey.

The region takes in San Benito, Santa Cruz and Monterey counties. It quickly became apparent that one size would never fit all in an area that bundles high tech Santa Cruz and uber-rich Pebble Beach with Salinas Valley farming towns, the Paicines cattle country and the isolated peaks of the Santa Lucia and Gabilan mountains. The solution was a five step process that creates a range of commonly defined standards and objectives that would be applied locally, as deemed appropriate by individual communities:

  • Get upfront, region wide buy-in to a regional broadband development master plan with a small contribution to its cost from a sufficient number of local governments, businesses and other organisations. If they’ll pay a little to create the plan, then it’s likelier they’ll pay more to implement it. If not, it’s best to know now.
  • Prepare the master plan and in the process establish a broadband development baseline and a ladder of well defined service tiers above it.
  • Outline the steps necessary to reach each successive tier, with options for a local government to go it alone or collaborate with similar situated communities across the region.
  • Create a neutral certification program that documents and validates each community’s climb up the commonly agreed service tier ladder.
  • As each step up the ladder is certified, automatically move to the next one, at a pace determined by local needs, aspirations and resources.

The group also made it clear that broadband service standards aren’t only about speeds. Affordability and direct access to basic building blocks, such as dark fiber, are just as important. So is differentiating between residential needs and the more complex and tightly defined broadband service requirements of businesses.

The next step is to form a regional leadership team that will, as the roundtable session’s title put it, move “from ideas to action”.

Bipartisan bill limits federal environmental review of telecoms projects

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Just don’t disturb the ground.

A bipartisan bill introduced in the U.S. senate aims to put some common sense into environmental law, at least where wireless facilities are concerned. Co-authored by U.S. senators Roger Wicker (R – Mississippi) and Catherine Cortez Masto (D – Nevada), senate bill 1988, aka the Speed act, would exempt a “communication facility installation” from federal environmental and historic reviews, if there’s already infrastructure in place in the project area.

Wireless infrastructure gets additional exemptions. Federal, state and local agencies would be barred from conducting reviews otherwise called by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) or requiring others to do so if the proposed wireless facility is:

  • In an existing public right of way, and
  • Any ground disturbance is limited to that right of way, and
  • The structure is no more than 50 feet tall or 10 feet higher than existing structures already in that right of way, whichever is higher, and has no guy wires.

There’s no blanket preemption of local and state authority in the bill. The exemptions are limited to federal law. It specifically says that “nothing in this section shall be construed to affect…the authority of a State or local government to apply and enforce the zoning and other land use regulations of the State or local government to the extent consistent with” federal law.

Its effect in California will be limited. Here, NEPA generally applies only when federal agencies or land is involved in a project. Usually, it’s the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) that governs environmental reviews and it would not be affected by the bill as currently written.

I would not give S-1988 much of a chance of making it into law as is, though. The big reason is that telecoms bills – even widely supported bipartisan ones – have gotten stuck in congressional gridlock over the past couple of years. If it gets unstuck, telecoms lobbyists will try to add perks, particularly ones that would similarly preempt state and local laws. Some or all of the language could also get rolled into other bill, such as happened with dig once legislation, which was incorporated into, and then cut from, the still-stalled Mobile Now act.

Industrial, commercial Star Ratings produce broadband development roadmap

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Broadband infrastructure analysis has two primary goals: 1. figure out what’s available now and whether it meets needs, and 2. identify and evaluate options for further development. Last year, Tellus Venture Associates created the Star Rating tool to assess broadband infrastructure in industrial and commercial areas.

It takes into account available service and existing infrastructure, and compares it to a range of benchmarks, including commodity business-level broadband, enhanced “megabit” and “gigabit” class service, and dark fiber. It’s flexible enough to accomodate a diverse range of data sources, including standard California Public Utilities Commission broadband availability reports, system diagrams provided by small Internet service providers, and local agency records, such as conduit maps, and zoning and business license information.

We initially developed it to simply determine whether current industrial and commercial infrastructure and service matched up with local economic development objectives. In the Broadband Infrastructure Assessment and Action Plan we recently completed for the City of West Sacramento, we turned it into a forward looking tool, and used it to predict the outcomes of different broadband development scenarios.

The currently available commercial/industrial broadband service in West Sacramento rates one-half Star overall, with some census blocks in the 2 Star and 3 Star range. But there are several under-utilised fiber routes that pass through West Sacramento, and the city owns an extensive conduit system, including shadow conduit prospectively installed during public works and major private developments. We ran two more scenarios to evaluate how those assets could be put to use, and assess the economic development impact of doing so.

The results were dramatic. Just by putting existing, commercially available fiber to use, West Sacramento’s overall rating rose to a full 1 Star. When city conduit was factored in, it jumped to 2 Stars, with some census blocks earning 4 Stars and 5 Stars.

The overall rating is interesting, but it’s the specific parcel and census block evaluations that are now truly useful. The city, commercial/industrial real estate owners, and businesses and tenants now have, as West Sacramento mayor Christopher Cabaldon put it, a “dashboard” to drive decisions and implement specific projects.

City of West Sacramento Broadband Infrastructure Assessment and Action Plan, 30 March 2017
Presentation to the West Sacramento City Council, 5 April 2017

Broadband infrastructure follows roads and rails to West Sacramento

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The railroads and freeways that made West Sacramento a logistic hub brought robust fiber optic infrastructure with them. As a result, the city is criss-crossed by long haul and metro fiber lines and hosts two data centers. That’s the one of the top line results of a study completed by Tellus Venture Associates and presented to the West Sacramento city council last week. Other findings include…

  • Along with excellent industrial grade fiber networks and data centers, the City of West Sacramento owns a significant amount of telecommunications conduit that can be used to leverage those assets.
  • The primary broadband infrastructure in West Sacramento, which is owned by AT&T and Wave, is near average when compared to California as a whole, receiving a “C-” grade (1.9 out of 4.0). That’s on a par with many Silicon Valley communities.
  • Nevertheless, consumers and business people generally believe that the Internet service they receive is not fast enough or reliable enough for their needs.
  • Mobile broadband service varies by provider, with some offering citywide coverage and others showing significant gaps in availability and/or capacity.
  • A glaring digital divide exists, with half of households adopting broadband at a significantly lower rate than Californians overall. This split correlates to economic status. Households with lower broadband adoption rates have an average income of about $41,000 per year, while those with higher rates average $75,000 and up.

Top of the policy and project recommendation list is for West Sacramento to keep doing what it’s already doing right – installing conduit in public works projects and leasing it to telecoms companies, for example – and build on that base by looking at extending fiber and conduit to industrial areas that need it.

Addressing the digital divide is also needful, and the City will be doing targeted public outreach to identify specific broadband development targets. Recommended next steps also include advocating for residents with state and federal regulators and policy makers, including urging that temporary low income programs offered by broadband providers be made permanent.

City of West Sacramento Broadband Infrastructure Assessment and Action Plan, 30 March 2017
Presentation to the West Sacramento City Council, 5 April 2017

FCC set to preempt local right of way and permit authority

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A sweeping review of how cities and counties manage public roads and approve construction permits for wired and wireless broadband infrastructure is on the table at the Federal Communications Commission. If approved, two draft decisions would, among other things, start the process of setting tighter limits on how and when local governments can establish standards for digging trenches or planting poles and boxes in public rights of way, and make wireless permit shot clocks absolute with an automatic deemed granted decision once time limits have expired and a ban on court challenges by local governments.

Federal laws and regulations give cities 60, 90 or 150 days to either approve permits for wireless facilities, depending on the type, or deny applications on a narrow set of grounds. In California, if the clock expires then the application is automatically granted (under state law for the 90 or 150 day clock, under federal law for the 60 day clock), but there is a window for court challenges. Some of the measures under consideration by the FCC would narrow that window, perhaps even close it completely, and would preempt any state discretion over how the time limits are managed, extended and enforced.

The FCC is also thinking about creating time limits for local review of broadband construction plans, including applications for permission to cut into streets and lay conduit and fiber lines, and to install vaults, boxes and poles (including, presumably, wireless towers by another name) along roads and on sidewalks. Along with that, the FCC could limit the fees that local governments charge for permits and restrict the scope for negotiation with would-be broadband infrastructure builders.

Other ideas under consideration include reforming pole attachment rules – a major barrier for new broadband service providers – and preempting state rules that govern when and how telephone companies can yank out copper networks. Last year, AT&T tried to ram a similar measure through the California legislature, but couldn’t overcome opposition from unions and other groups. That bill hasn’t resurfaced yet, and might not need to if the FCC federalises the process.

New wireline and wireless infrastructure policy is still far from final. All the FCC would do at its meeting later this month is begin the process for making the new rules, although the way the request for comments is currently framed shows that Pai has a pretty good idea of what he thinks needs to be done. Besides those two rulemaking proceedings, Pai also wants change how middle mile services are regulated. The FCC was on the verge of approving new rules last November, but was short circuited when Donald Trump won the election – more on that later. Changes to the Connect America Fund rural broadband subsidy program will also be considered, along with new rules for radio and TV stations.

Some ideas in the hundreds of pages of proposals are worthy and some are not. And changes could be made before the FCC votes on 20 April 2017. After that, there will be months of comments, replies and debates before actual new rules are drafted and, presumably, approved. So this isn’t the time to panic. Pai should be commended for publishing the full text of his proposals weeks ahead of the meeting, as he promised to do when he assumed the chairmanship. Previous FCC chairs kept the details secret until after commissioners voted, and sometimes for weeks after that. Now, even if we don’t like it, at least we know what’s coming.

Accelerating wireline broadband deployment by removing barriers to infrastructure investment, draft notice of proposed rulemaking, notice of inquiry, and request for comment, 30 March 2017
Wireless infrastructure, draft notice of proposed rulemaking and notice of inquiry, 30 March 2017
Business data services in an internet protocol environment, draft report and order, 30 March 2017
Connect america fund, draft order, 30 March 2017

Fast track for telecoms projects ordered by Trump

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Telecommunications finally got a shout out from the new administration as president Trump included it in a list of the sort of infrastructure projects he considers to be a high priority and, consequently, deserving of quick federal environmental reviews. A low profile executive order issued yesterday put it plainly

It is the policy of the executive branch to streamline and expedite, in a manner consistent with law, environmental reviews and approvals for all infrastructure projects, especially projects that are a high priority for the Nation, such as improving the U.S. electric grid and telecommunications systems and repairing and upgrading critical port facilities, airports, pipelines, bridges, and highways.

Qualifying projects will be ramrodded through federal review processes. At least to the extent possible, which actually might not be all that much. There’s the usual boilerplate about “nothing in this order shall be construed” and “consistent with applicable law”, so ample opportunity remains for rear guard action.

It accompanied higher profile announcements about the resurrection of less environmentally benign pipeline projects. Taken in that context, it might have been motivated by considerations that have nothing to do with building broadband infrastructure. But it’s the first mention of telecoms that I’ve seen in the rapidly growing pile of proclamations coming out of the white house, and that’s encouraging.

The chair of the white house council on environmental quality has final say on which projects get the express treatment, but state governors and top federal political appointees can make the request. Or if you happen to have a back channel to the white house, that’ll work too: the chair can do it “on his or her own initiative”.

Trump’s decree has no effect on Californian agencies or review processes. It’s purely federal. But it could speed up projects and reduce costs in rural California, where the federal government controls vast tracts of land that fiber routes often pass through, and mountain tops that are critical for wireless facilities.

Brown, Newsom clash over merits of obstruction

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Zorro drew his sword. Paladin went for his gun. TJ Hooker whipped out his stick. When in peril, Californian heroes find salvation in a sure and deadly weapon. In our finest tradition, lieutenant governor Gavin Newsom faced the looming threat of Donald Trump’s wall, shouted not in my backyard and brandished the ultimate equaliser: the California Environmental Quality Act. According to the Los Angeles Times

“There’s something called CEQA in California — NEPA at the federal level,” Newsom said. “There’s indigenous lands and autonomies relating to governance on those lands. There are all kinds of obstructions as it relates to just getting zoning approval and getting building permits. All those things could be made very, very challenging for the administration.”

I’m not saying the wall is a good idea. Nor am I suggesting opposition to it is a bad thing. If you’re against it, you should oppose it by any legitimate means possible.

The point I’m making has nothing to do with the wall and everything to do with the seductive power of laws and processes that were intended to promote thoughtful stewardship of land and resources, but have instead become tools that allow anyone with a grievance – real or imagined – to block infrastructure development.

Around the same time that Newsom was making his stand, governor Jerry Brown called out for regulatory reform, to solve California’s housing shortage…

What we can do is cut the red tape, cut the delays, cut whatever expenses we can afford to do without to make housing more affordable and therefore increase the stock and therefore hopefully bring down the costs.

You want affordable housing, efficient transportation and fast broadband? Then someone has to grab a shovel and dig. But if the cost of a project is doubled or tripled, or if it is hopelessly tangled in endless challenges, then ground will never be broken.

Newsom’s defiance is no threat to Trump’s wall. Federal preemption is a simple fix that can be baked into any authorising bill. But Newsom’s example legitimises self centered nimbys and rent seekers, and impedes reform of well meaning laws that they have warped into weapons of woe.

Spend on broadband not crumbling concrete, says California congressman

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Issa on home turf.

Representative Darrell Issa (R – San Diego) embraced Donald Trump’s plan to pump a lot of federal money into infrastructure during a CES panel discussion in Las Vegas this weekend, and broadband is at the top of his shopping list. If the federal government is going to spend a trillion dollars again, Issa thinks it should be forward looking projects that get funded, and not repair jobs left over from the last century.

The problem with the Obama administration’s stimulus program, Issa said, was that it focused on fixing things like crumbling bridges that state and local governments ignored, until the federal government asked for shovel ready projects

What’s shovel ready right now is the smart highway. What’s shovel ready right now is connecting our world better and faster, in which the federal government can participate in that – in spectrum allocation, in some dollars, but also in systems that help that get rolled out faster. The federal government, in a sense, has an exclusive license on the Interstate systems. We can preempt everything to make things happen better, quicker, faster, and if we spend and invest a trillion dollars in partnerships, in that, then suddenly we have a much more connected world…

The investment this time is different. It’s not about a crumbling piece of concrete that a city or county or state should have maintained. It’s about where does the federal government take us to the next level, so that our country is, in fact, headed in a way that the superhighway’s of 70 years ago made us competitive, now the superhighway is, if you will, electronic.

Issa was preaching to the choir at CES. Before running for congress, he was CEO of a tech company and served as chair of the Consumer Electronics Association – now the Consumer Technology Association, so his enthusiasm for broadband spending comes naturally. It faces two hurdles, though. Trump’s stated infrastructure priority is building “the roads, highways, bridges, tunnels, airports, and railways of tomorrow” – no mention of broadband – and there’s deep skepticism about big spending programs of any kind among Issa’s fellow republicans.

California needs fast, investor friendly projects to win federal infrastructure money

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A new business model?

Money could start flowing into California infrastructure, if president-elect Donald Trump’s plan to spend a trillion dollars on construction projects continues on the course that it seems to be on. That was the cautious optimism expressed at the California Economic Summit yesterday during a briefing on infrastructure programs and progress.

The optimism was about the way Trump’s infrastructure priorities – at least as far as those have been articulated – broadly matches California’s make-up: big projects in major metropolitan areas that have a national impact and rural areas that are close to major economic drivers – like Silicon Valley – and to logistics hubs like major seaports, rail lines and highways.

The caution was the result of doubts about California’s ability to compete with other states for federal subsidies and its willingness to embrace private capital and participation – otherwise known as public-private partnerships.

There are states that don’t have California’s regulatory overhead – environmental clearances, work rules, set asides for particular purposes such as low income housing and the list goes on – and they might be able to put (I hate to say it, but it’s back in vogue) shovel ready projects on the table faster. Governor Brown’s plan to bore tunnels around the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and transport more water south was given as an example. It’s a high profile mega-project that will generate lots of jobs, but there’s a seemingly infinite number of only-in-California wrenches that can thrown into the works.

Trump is also said to favor supplementing private sector investment in public projects, rather than simply handing out grants to states. The California high speed rail project would likely have to be converted into some form of public-private partnership, rather than remain a purely public sector endeavor, in order to get federal funding, according to Michael Likosky, the head of the infrastructure practice at 32 Advisors, an east coast consultancy. Texas and Florida have competing, privately financed high speed rail projects that are a better match with Trump’s preferred business model, he said.

On the other hand, Likosky expects straight grants – as opposed to loans or partnership financing packages – will be available for public sector projects in rural areas.